Pests and pathogens are an important component of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, as they are characterised by a high biodiversity and can account for a significant proportion of biomass. As an important food resource for higher trophic levels and in predator-prey relationships, pests are elementary links in food webs. They are also important indicators of the natural regulatory capacity of agroecosystems, including the direct and indirect effects of interventions such as plant protection measures. Existing surveys of pests and pathogens form a good basis for this, but are often not yet comprehensive enough. The aim of the subproject "Pests and pathogens" is therefore to develop a proposal for a pest and pathogen monitoring on cultivated plants and to test it on small scale. Gradually, agricultural crops, wine and apple production will be examined and, if necessary, extended by further cultivations later on. On the basis of already existing data and monitoring of pests in the federal states as well as suitable test results from different institutions, criteria for the selection of pests, pathogens, crops, regions and corresponding monitoring methods will be developed, which will also incorporate the latest methods of data processing and analysis as well as molecular biology and bioinformatics. These results form the basis for the development of an enhanced concept for systematic pest monitoring that integrates existing structures, expands them in a targeted manner and thus allows sound statements to be made about trends and the relevance of pests and pathogens for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.